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BSc. theses and BSc. projects

The GIS-studio assists BSc. students during their individual research projects. This section illustrates examples of BSc. research projects that have been facilitated by staff members of the GIS-studio.

List of Bachelor Theses with a GIS and\or a Remote Sensing component:

Example of Bachelor Project:

Bachelor Theses

Figure_18_page_19_Bachelor_Thesis_Elise_van_Iterson_UvA_2022.jpg

Name: Elise van Iterson

Bachelor Thesis

Supervisor: Dr. W.M. de Boer and
2nd supervisor: Dr. K.F. Rijsdijk

Year: 2022

Geoarchaeological research: Relict charcoal hearths in relation to dominant wind directions in the Central Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley, Brandenburg, Germany

Charcoal is an important energy resource in the Sub-Saharan Africa. Unfortunately, charcoal production is inefficient and leads to high deforestation rates. The inefficiency of charcoal production has been researched, but focus was mainly on the construction and material of the hearths. There is a lack of studies on the impact of climatic conditions on charcoal manufacturing. Throughout history, until the second half of the 19th Century, charcoal was an important energy source for the local iron industry in Brandenburg, Germany (DE). Back then, this fuel was also produced in charcoal hearths (CHs). Remains of these CHs are called relict charcoal hearths (RCHs), and are still visible in current the landscape. This thesis contains a geoarchaeological research on RCHs in order to understand the relation between charcoal production and one specific climatic condition: wind. To elaborate, the spatial distribution of relict charcoal hearths will be analyzed, concentrating on the lee zones of dunes. The research area is located near Horstwalde, in the Central Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley. Three phases have been undergone for this study: firstly, pre-processing; with the use of Remote Sensing and GIS, possible RCHs were determined by their geomorphological features. Secondly, the fieldwork; soil research confirms or rejects these previously, digitally determined RCHs. Thirdly, the postprocessing; creating a map of the spatial distribution of the RCHs in the area and an additional map of the parabolic dune ridges and their lee zones in ArcGIS. Furthermore, a statistical analysis of the collected field data has been performed. The result of the null hypothesis significance test states that there is a significant relation between the lee zones of the dunes and the locations of the RCHs. This means, that most RCHs lie leeward of the dune crest(s). The results of this study are not sufficient to draw conclusions, but further research on wind and other climatic conditions in relation to charcoal hearths is recommended.

Keywords: Relict Charcoal Hearths, RCH, Lee zones, lee side, wind shade, dunes, Geomorphology, Geomorphology, LiDAR, GIS, Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley, Baruther Urstromtal, Horstwalde, Schoenefeld, mapping, Brandenburg, Germany

Click here to see: Page 19: Figure 18. All suspected RCHs from the preprocessing phase and their confirmation status after the fieldwork phase. Confirmed in the field were RCHs that met all requirements such as flat surface round elevations and charcoal present in the soil. Not examined, is a classification for suspected RCHs that were not researched in the field. Reassessment of the DEM during the fieldwork showed that these points were wrongfully suspected in the preprocessing phase. These points are garbage heaps or circular natural dunes and depressions. Rejected in the field are data points that were suspected RCHs but there was either no confirmation possible due to tillage or other anthropogenic alterations, or they were wrongfully suspected. The dune ridges are determined by Snoek (2016). Base map: Topographische Karte der DDR ( 1:25000), geodatabase: (c) GeoBasis-DE/LGB 2022.

Click here for the full bachelor thesis.


Click here to download the data behind this BSc Thesis (file named Data_Project_Package_ArcGISPro_BSc_Thesis_Elise_van_Iterson_UvA_2022.ppkx in ArcGIS Pro Project Package .ppkx format).

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Figure_17_Page_21_Bachelor_Thesis_Timothy_Konijn_UvA_2022.jpg

Name: Timothy Konijn

Bachelor Thesis

Supervisor: Dr. W.M. de Boer and
2nd supervisor: Dr. A.C. Seijmonsbergen

Year: 2022

Mapping relict charcoal hearths in the Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley with remote sensing and the Trimble Yuma7 fieldwork tablet

Pre-industrial charcoal burning was an essential energy source for the iron industry in Brandenburg, Germany. The remains of these charcoal production sites, relict charcoal hearths (RCHs), are still visible in the current landscape. Previous studies have researched the captivating dune formation in the Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley, northwest of Horstwalde, however RCH mapping was lacking. In order to improve the overall knowledge and cultural understanding of the Brandenburg landscape, this region was investigated with the assistance of GIS, remote sensing and fieldwork. This research analyzed and mapped relict charcoal hearths northwest of Horstwalde. This was achieved in three steps. Firstly, preprocessing: with the use of Remote Sensing and GIS, possible RCHs were determined by their geomorphological features. Then during fieldwork, field data containing the soil properties, land use and RCH features were measured. Soil research and landscape features confirmed or rejected possible RCHs. Finally, during the postprocessing, a map concerning the spatial distribution of the RCHs was made and analyzed on spatial patterns. A total of 232 suspected RCH points were identified, 44 of these sites were confirmed during fieldwork. 18 new points and 14 high certainty points were confirmed RCHs. The majority of these sites were clustered between 600 and 1300 meters north/ northeast of the study area. These RCHs were location-dependent. North/ northeast of the fieldwork area, parabolic dunes are more developed compared to the west and therefore provide more wind protection. Also, the distance of confirmed RCHs to the Horstwalde iron furnace and distance to the nearest roads were crucial for historical charcoal production.

Keywords: Relict Charcoal Hearths, RCH, clusters, dunes, Geomorphology, LiDAR, GIS, Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley, Baruther Urstromtal, Horstwalde, Schoenefeld, mapping, Brandenburg, Germany

Click here to see: Page 21: Figure 17. Visualization of RCH clusters. The data can be used in accordance with the "Data License Germany - Attribution - Version 2.0" https://www.govdata.de/dl-de/by-2-0)

Click here for the full bachelor thesis.


Click here to download the data behind this BSc Thesis (file named Data_Project_Package_ArcGISPro_Bsc_thesis_Timothy_Konijn_UvA_2022.ppkx in ArcGIS Pro Project Package .ppkx format).

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Figure_18_Page_21_Bachelor_Thesis_Juriaan_Rijsdijk_UvA_2022.jpg

Name: Juriaan Rijsdijk

Bachelor Thesis

Supervisor: Dr. W.M. de Boer and
2nd supervisor: Dr. A.C. Seijmonsbergen

Year: 2022

The influence of geomorphology on the spatial distribution and size of relict charcoal hearths in the Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley (Brandenburg)

In the Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley, charcoal hearths (CHs) were built to produce charcoal for iron production. The remnants of CHs are nowadays still recognizable in the landscape are called relict charcoal hearths (RCHs). In this thesis, there is researched if RCHs are more common on fairly sloped areas or on flatter areas and if there is a relationship between the steepness of the slope on which a RCH is located and the diameter of a RCH. With the use of DEM-derived maps, possible RCHs were mapped and during fieldwork confirmed or rejected. Three different methods were used to calculate the steepness of the slopes on which the confirmed RCHs were located in order to divide the RCHs over different slope classes and to conduct a linear regression analysis. For all three slope determination methods, most RCHs were found in the 2 - 4 degrees and 4 - 7 degrees slope classes, with mean slope values ranging from 4.321264 degrees (method 1) to 4.905861 degrees (method 3). Taking into consideration that method 1 is most likely to be the most reliable method, it is within reason to conclude that most RCHs were found on slopes with a relatively low steepness. Moreover, in the spatial analysis, most RCHs were found in the areas with the most relief, often found on relatively flatter areas close to dune slopes or enclosed by two or more dune ridges. The main reason for these positions could be that CHs were sheltered from the wind during charcoal production. At last, although in the linear regression analysis a significant negative relationship was found between slope steepness and diameter and this relationship is supported by literature, the relationship was weak (low R-squared value) and only method 1 resulted in a significant relationship. That is why further research with a higher sample size and different slope determination methods is recommended to explore if this leads to results with a higher certainty.

Keywords: Relict Charcoal Hearths, RCH, slopes, dunes, lee side, wind shade, Geomorphology, LiDAR, GIS, Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley, Baruther Urstromtal, Horstwalde, Schoenefeld, mapping, Brandenburg, Germany

Click here to see: Page 21: Figure 18. Confirmed, rejected and not examined RCHs in strip 1, 2 and 3. This is indicated for the three levels of certainty of identification assigned to the points during the preprocessing phase: 'High', 'Medium' and 'Low'. RCHs that were newly found during the fieldwork are indicated as 'New' points.

Click here for the full bachelor thesis.


Click here to download the data behind this BSc Thesis (file named Data_Project_Package_ArcGISPro_BSc_Thesis_Juriaan_Rijsdijk_UvA_2022.ppkx in ArcGIS Pro Project Package .ppkx format).

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Figure_05_Bachelor_Thesis_Joost_Bakker_UvA_2021.JPG

Names:
Joost Bakker, Hein van Gelderen,
Aletta Melger, Jaap Wesselman

Bachelor Thesis

Supervisor: Dr. W.M. (Thijs) de Boer

Year: 2021

Further work on creating a detailed geomorphological map of the Central Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley (Landkreis Telow-Flaeming, Brandenburg, Germany)

The Bachelor Research of 4 University of Amsterdam students in the spring of 2021 following the Future Planet Studies Bachelor focusses on:
1) creating a geomorphological map of the Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley (Landkreis Telow-Flaeming, Brandenburg, Germany) with only digital means and source data and
2) testing its reliability and
3) investigate whether digital mapping of geomorphological landscape features using literature, LiDAR-derived products (like slope-, aspect-, hillshade- and elevation maps), existing historic-, topographical-, soil-, geological- and geomorphological maps aerial photographs, satellite images, drone images and expert knowledge of supervisor Dr. W.M. de Boer can replace traditional physical fieldwork.
The Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley has an interesting geomorphological genesis as it lies between two terminal moraines from different glaciations (Saalian and Weichselian). The (fluvio)glacial, aeolian and anthropogenic processes have formed the Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley as it is today. Due to the Covid19 pandemic, which had its outbreak during the start of this research in March 2020, it was prohibited to perform live fieldwork and all had to be done digitally.
The availability of LiDAR data allows for detailed digital research of the area and combined with existing literature this research has set out to create a large scale geomorphological map that was missing before this.
Several detailed geomorphological maps were created containing macro, meso and micro structures. Most of the features could be mapped with high reliability and precision. However, features related to endogenic processes and some micro-scale features could not be mapped with certainty. These maps were combined following a legend made in the combined research of 6 students in 2020 and with addition of the 4 students in 2021 that is based upon older German legends of areas of similar morphogenesis. The created legend is suitable for areas of (fluvio)glacial genesis and contains landforms that make this valley unique such as Relict Charcoal Hearths and military.
The geomorphological map of the valley is compliant with expectations: dominant fluvioglacial processes, followed by aeolian and anthropogenic landforms on top from a later stage in history.
Mapping in ArcGIS Pro is easier than mapping on paper as it allows for overlaying of maps and results and automatically applies symbology and legends. However, because of this, it is impossible to apply a different size of symbol to the same code carrying landform and thus will always be displayed the same size.
LiDAR datasets are a promising technology for geomorphological mapping with great detail. However, a combination of thematic maps, expert knowledge and physical fieldwork is also needed to create a reliable geomorphological map.
Keywords: Geomorphology, LiDAR, GIS, ArcGIS Pro, Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley, Baruther Urstromtal, mapping, reliability, Brandenburg, Germany

Click here to download the combined Geomorphological Map of the Central Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley 2020-2021 (file named BSc_Research_Baruth_2020_2021.ppkx in ArcGIS Pro Project Package .ppkx format)

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Figure_05_Bachelor_Thesis_Joost_Bakker_UvA_2021.JPG

Name: Joost Bakker

Bachelor Thesis

Supervisor: Dr. W.M. de Boer and
2nd supervisor: Dr. A.C. Seijmonsbergen

Year: 2021

The creation of a geomorphology map and the identification of the paleo drainage system of the Hammerfliess stream in the Central Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley with the use of LiDAR

The aim of this research is to further map the geomorphology of the Central Baruther Ice-Marginal valley. The research builds on research carried out last year by bachelor students Geskus (2020), Nobel (2020), Luimes (2020), Romar (2020), Schadee (2020) and Zuidervaart (2020). The Central Baruther Ice-Marginal valley is located in Germany south of Berlin and formed during the last 2 ice ages. The geomorphological map was created using digital sources such as LiDAR data, aerial photographs and previously created maps. Furthermore, the geomorphological map was made in collaboration with 3 research partners, A. Melger (2021), H. van Gelderen (2021) and J. Wesselman (2021). Various land forms have been mapped, including moraines, various valley terraces, dunes, and a sander. Furthermore, based on literature and the geomorphological map, several paleo-geographical maps have been made that show what the research area may have looked like during 4 important phases of the landscape formation.

Keywords: Geomorphology, LiDAR, GIS, Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley, Baruther Urstromtal, Hammerfliess, Goila, mapping, Brandenburg, Germany

Click here to see: Page 10: Figure 05. Geomorphological map (Macro, Meso and Micro) of the research area in 2020 and 2021 of the Central Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley. For a higher resolution, see Appendices A and B.

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Fig_15_Bachelor_Thesis_Hein_van_Gelderen_UvA_2021.jpg

Name: Hein van Gelderen

Bachelor Thesis

Supervisor: Dr. W.M. de Boer and
2nd supervisor: Dr. A.C. Seijmonsbergen

Year: 2021

The reliability of digital classification and mapping for the geomorphology in the Baruth Ice-marginal valley

Within the field of geomorphology the use of remote sensed imagery has been increasing. More often in geomorphological research digital data is being used. Therefore this paper explores the possibility to create a geomorphological map using just digital data. The research area mapped is the Central Baruth Ice-marginal valley. This area is located 40 kilometres south of Berlin in Germany. The area has an interesting geomorphological genesis, it lies between two terminal moraines that were deposited by glaciers during two different ice ages. The data used in this research consists of LiDAR data, aerial photos, orthophotos and premade Web mapping Services (WMS). The main research question is as follows ‘To what extent is it possible to geomorphological map an area using digital data?’. To answer this question accurately the geomorphological map contains macro-, meso- and micro-geomorphological landscape features. These maps are created using ArcGIS Pro (2.7.2.). To further make use of digital mapping this paper explores the possibilities to optimize digital data. To do this several data conversion techniques are implicated resulting in the finding of three different river terraces which is in contrast with previous research. The findings in this research implicate that the certainty of geomorphological landscape features highly depends on the sources available and the dimensions of the landscape feature. Digital mapping is most optimal when mapping macro geomorphological features. Micro geomorphological features require fieldwork to confirm their presence.

Keywords: Geomorphology, LiDAR, GIS, Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley, Baruther Urstromtal, Hammerfliess, Goila, mapping, Brandenburg, Germany

Click here to see: Page 17: Figure 15. River terraces numbered in the Baruther ice marginal-valley, directly east of Baruth. Terrace 1: below 54 m NN, Terrace 2: 54 up to 54.5 m NN and Terrace 3: above 54.5 m NN.

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Figure_19_Bachelor_Thesis_Aletta_Melger_UvA_2021.JPG

Name: Aletta Melger

Bachelor Thesis

Supervisor: Dr. W.M. de Boer and
2nd supervisor: Dr. A.C. Seijmonsbergen

Year: 2021

The creation of a geomorphology map and the identification of the paleo drainage system of the Hammerfliess stream in the Central Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley with the use of LiDAR

This study investigates paleo drainage systems in the Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley. The Hammerfliess is the main stream in the research area. In the 1970s the Hammerfliess was canalized for agricultural purposes. Sustainable water and land management are important to preserve the fluvial landscape. Nevertheless, after the canalization forestry and nature conservation have experienced negative effects due to a change in water balance. Therefore, stream restoration projects have been started to make the river flow naturally and enhance nature conservation, by raising the stream bed and broaden the stream width. However, the projects did not take paleo rivers into account. While paleo rivers are the original stream flow and have the lowest elevation in the area, they could have great effect on the fluvial landscape. Koning (2017) has investigated the paleo drainage system and has mapped the Hammerfliess. However, the map could be made more detailed between Baruth and Paplitz. Hence, a more detailed 0.5m DEM is derived from the available LiDAR data in the study area. With the use of hydrology tools in ArcGIS pro parts of the former flow path and the paleo drainage system of the current Hammerfliess between Baruth and Paplitz are mapped. By comparing the paleo drainage system to the stream restoration project, improvements are identified and nature conservation can be enhanced. Additionally, a geomorphological map is created on micro, meso, and macro level. The map is based on the legends of Pachur & Schulz (1983) and Frank (1987) and the legend of the map developed by the FPS BSc students in the Spring of 2020 (Geskus, 2020; Luimes, 2020; de Nobel, 2020; Romar, 2020; Schadee, 2020; Zuidervaart, 2020). Due to technological innovation, among which tools in ArcGIS pro and LiDAR data, the map is made more detailed and up to date. The results show several improvement areas of the restoration project, where the hydrology map of the area suggests an alternative flow path outside the Hammerfliess stream. The several alternative flow paths correspond partially to paleo river streams which are identified with orthophotos and drone photos. However, due to limitations in the dataset and the hydro tools and therefore the hydrology map the paleo drainage system could not fully be mapped. Therefore, the LiDAR dataset is propound to be moderately useful in this research.

Keywords: Geomorphology, LiDAR, GIS, Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley, Baruther Urstromtal, Hammerfliess, Goila, mapping, Brandenburg, Germany

Click here to see: Page 22: Figure 19. Identification of paleo rivers with the use of different methods. This is paleo river C, located between Paplitz and Baruth/Mark as identified in figure 20.

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Fig_11_Page_14_Bachelor_Thesis_Jaap_Wesselman_UvA_2021.jpg

Name: Jaap Wesselman

Bachelor Thesis

Supervisor: Dr. W.M. de Boer and
2nd supervisor: Dr. A.C. Seijmonsbergen

Year: 2021

Geomorphological mapping and tracing of paleo-river systems in Baruth Ice Marginal Valley, Brandenburg, Germany By use of LiDAR data, satellite images in ArcGIS Pro and conventional geological data

This research focuses on the geomorphological mapping of the Central Baruth Ice Marginal Valley using LiDAR data, which was analysed in the Geographical Mapping program ArcGIS Pro 2.8.0. in combination with literature, satellite images and conventional topographical and geological data. As a result, a geomorphological map was created, which contains landscape forms at different scales, namely macro, meso and micro level. This research has been built on previous years' Bachelor research, where the geomorphological map on the east side will be extended by 5 x 2 = 10 km, and a specificity of minimum mapping size of fifty meters will be used. In addition, this research includes a specialization in which remains of the paleo-river (old dry river) the Goila have been traced. The Goila flowed in the Central Baruth Ice Marginal Valley but is currently canalized and named Hammerfließ. In the area, restoration of the canalized river Hammerfließ has taken place. Finally, the effects on biodiversity and flow location of the restored section of this river are discussed. Due to the COVID-19 virus, it was not possible to physically carry out research/fieldwork in the area, therefore the area was analysed and mapped from a distance using LiDAR data, orthophotos, topographic maps, drone photos, literature and by the help of area expert Mr. Dr. W.M. (Thijs) de Boer.

Keywords: Geomorphology, LiDAR, GIS, Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley, Baruther Urstromtal, Hammerfliess, Goila, mapping, Brandenburg, Germany

Click here to see: Page 14: Figure 11. The canalised Hammerfliess (drawn on base of WMS BB-BE DTK10 Farbe) and the former flow of the paleo-river Goila through the research area drawn from the georeferenced map (Urmesstischblatt map of 1841) and drawn from an approximation of the DEM (Goila location A). The location of cross-section A shown in Figure 10 can be seen. The background is the DEM, which shows the characteristic structure of a paleo-river.

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Geomorphological_Map_CBIMV_Layout_A1_landscape_DPI_300.jpg

Names:
Stefan Geskus, Berend Luimes,
Jeroen de Nobel, Martijn Romar,
Marin Schadee, Stef Zuidervaart

Bachelor Thesis

Supervisor: Dr. W.M. (Thijs) de Boer

Year: 2020

Creating a detailed geomorphological map of the Central Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley (Landkreis Telow-Flaeming, Brandenburg, Germany)

The Bachelor Research of 6 University of Amsterdam students in the spring of 2020 following the Future Planet Studies Bachelor focusses on:
1) creating a geomorphological map of the Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley (Landkreis Telow-Flaeming, Brandenburg, Germany) with only digital means and source data and
2) testing its reliability and
3) investigate whether digital mapping of geomorphological landscape features using literature, LiDAR-derived products (like slope-, aspect-, hillshade- and elevation maps), existing historic-, topographical-, soil-, geological- and geomorphological maps aerial photographs, satellite images, drone images and expert knowledge of supervisor Dr. W.M. de Boer can replace traditional physical fieldwork.
The Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley has an interesting geomorphological genesis as it lies between two terminal moraines from different glaciations (Saalian and Weichselian). The (fluvio)glacial, aeolian and anthropogenic processes have formed the Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley as it is today. Due to the Covid19 pandemic, which had its outbreak during the start of this research in March 2020, it was prohibited to perform live fieldwork and all had to be done digitally.
The availability of LiDAR data allows for detailed digital research of the area and combined with existing literature this research has set out to create a large scale geomorphological map that was missing before this.
Several detailed geomorphological maps were created containing macro, meso and micro structures. Most of the features could be mapped with high reliability and precision. However, features related to endogenic processes and some micro-scale features could not be mapped with certainty. These maps were combined following a legend made in the combined research of all 6 students that is based upon older German legends of areas of similar morphogenesis. The created legend is suitable for areas of (fluvio)glacial genesis and contains landforms that make this valley unique such as Relict Charcoal Hearths and military.
The geomorphological map of the valley is compliant with expectations: dominant fluvioglacial processes, followed by aeolian and anthropogenic landforms on top from a later stage in history.
Mapping in ArcGIS Pro is easier than mapping on paper as it allows for overlaying of maps and results and automatically applies symbology and legends. However, because of this, it is impossible to apply a different size of symbol to the same code carrying landform and thus will always be displayed the same size.
LiDAR datasets are a promising technology for geomorphological mapping with great detail. However, a combination of thematic maps, expert knowledge and physical fieldwork is also needed to create a reliable geomorphological map.
Keywords: Geomorphology, LiDAR, GIS, ArcGIS Pro, Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley, Baruther Urstromtal, mapping, reliability, Brandenburg, Germany

Click here to see the Geomorphological Map of the Central Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley (file in .jpg format)

Click here for the full Geomorphological Map of the Central Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley (file in .pdf format).

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Figure_11_Page_15_Bachelor_Thesis_Stefan_Geskus_UvA_2020.jpg

Name: Stefan Geskus

Bachelor Thesis

Supervisor: Dr. W.M. de Boer and
2nd supervisor: Dr. E.E. van Loon

Year: 2020

The reliability of geomorphological mapping using LiDAR data: the Central Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley

This study focusses on creating a geomorphological map of the Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley and testing its reliability. Early geomorphological mapping required physical site visits for recording landscape features in for instance topographical maps. However, new technologies in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) gives us the possibility to detect landscape features digitally. The aim of this study is to investigate whether digital mapping of geomorphological landscape features can replace traditional physical fieldwork using LiDAR-derived elevation maps applied on a fieldwork area in the Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley in Brandenburg, Germany. All landscape features and feature groups are assessed on the reliability of mapping them without physical fieldwork. These results are displayed in an overview. Several geomorphological maps were created containing macro, meso and micro structures. Most of the features could be mapped with high reliability and precision. However, features related to endogenic processes and some micro-scale features couldn’t be mapped with certainty. LiDAR datasets are a promising technology for geomorphological mapping with great detail. However, a combination of thematic maps, expert knowledge and physical fieldwork is also needed to create a reliable geomorphological map.

Keywords: Geomorphology, LiDAR, GIS, Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley, Baruther Urstromtal, mapping, reliability, Brandenburg, Germany

Click here to see: Page 15: Figure 11. Micro structures map on top of the macro and meso features maps.

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Page_12_Figure_10_Bachelor_Thesis_Berend_Luimes_UvA_2020.jpg

Name: Berend Luimes

Bachelor Thesis

Supervisor: Dr. W.M. de Boer and
2nd supervisor: Dr. W.D. Gosling

Year: 2020

The adequacy of digital geomorphological research

This study focusses on creating a geomorphological map of the Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley and testing its reliability. Early geomorphological mapping required physical site visits for recording landscape features in for instance topographical maps. However, new technologies in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) gives us the possibility to detect landscape features digitally. The aim of this study is to investigate whether digital mapping of geomorphological landscape features can replace traditional physical fieldwork using LiDAR-derived elevation maps applied on a fieldwork area in the Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley in Brandenburg, Germany. All landscape features and feature groups are assessed on the reliability of mapping them without physical fieldwork. These results are displayed in an overview. Several geomorphological maps were created containing macro, meso and micro structures. Most of the features could be mapped with high reliability and precision. However, features related to endogenic processes and some micro-scale features couldnot be mapped with certainty. LiDAR datasets are a promising technology for geomorphological mapping with great detail. However, a combination of thematic maps, expert knowledge and physical fieldwork is also needed to create a reliable geomorphological map.

Keywords: Geomorphology, LiDAR, GIS, Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley, Baruther Urstromtal, mapping, reliability, Brandenburg, Germany

Click here to see: Page 12: Figure 10. Potential Ridge and furrow-systems in the research area. Classified by color following the identification method. Red: class B, Green: class C, Orange: class D (= most promising).

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Name: Jeroen de Nobel

Bachelor Thesis

Supervisor: Dr. W.M. de Boer and
2nd supervisor: Dr. E.E. van Loon

Year: 2020

Digital Identification of Quaternary Geomorphological and Micro Relic Anthropogenic Landforms in the Baruther Ice-marginal Valley, Germany

In earth sciences landform mapping is a valuable method of data collection since surface morphology reveals processes that operate in an environment. The digital age offers a new approach to the original in-field landform identification. This research focusses on investigating the current potential of landform identification when only using digital sources. The main research question is as follows: With what level of certainty can macro and micro landforms be digitally identified in the Baruther ice-marginal valley, Germany? To accurately answer this, two research challenges were conducted: the creation of a geomorphological map and the identification of various relic micro anthropogenic landforms. The research is conducted in a 2 by 10 km area within the Baruther ice-marginal valley near Horstwalde, in southeast Brandenburg, Germany. Both challenges are carried out in ArcGIS Pro through the use of ground-level photos, orthophotos, colour infrared images, existing maps, scientific literature, historic literature, and through light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data generated maps. This research found that the certainty level greatly dependents on the availability of sources, and the feature that needs to be identified. In the end the majority of the landforms were identified with high confidence. Furthermore, digital identification was found to be a powerful supporting tool of physical in-field identification. Unfortunately, the active COVID-19 pandemic regulations prohibits fieldwork which makes ground-truthing not feasible. Due to this absence of field validation we could not yet confirm the exact success of this research identification in the Baruther ice-marginal valley.

Keywords: Geomorphology, LiDAR, GIS, Exclusive digital identification; Quaternary geomorphological mapping; Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley; Relic Charcoal Heart identification; Relic Conflict Site identification, Brandenburg, Germany

Click here to see: Page 13: Figure 9. Legend of RCS (Relict Combat Site) features.

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Page_10_Figure_4_Bachelor_Thesis_Martijn_Romar_UvA_2020.jpg

Name: Martijn Romar

Bachelor Thesis

Supervisor: Dr. W.M. de Boer and
2nd supervisor: Dr. W.D. Gosling

Year: 2020

Digitally mapping the geomorphology of the Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley - A study on the feasibility of digital fieldwork in the Central Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley as a replacement of standard fieldwork

This study focuses on the geomorphological mapping of the Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley as a method to investigate if a fully digital approach, without going into the field, is capable of producing accurate results. The fieldwork was replaced by a digital version, under supervision of a leading expert in the field. This study aims to produce a complete general geomorphological map using an updated version of the legend of Frank (1987) with an additional focus on Relict Combat Sites (RCS) and Relict Charcoal Hearths (RCHs). The maps are produced using LiDAR derived products to test if digital fieldwork can replace normal (on site) fieldwork. In general, digital fieldwork proved to be a valuable experience that can enhance research, and cut costs of fieldwork. The main disadvantages of a fully digital approach is the lack of quality control and ground truth, which was not a problem for large forms in the landscape, but proved to a problem when identifying smaller objects. Small features are easily mistaken for another as there is a lack of difference between them. Therefore digital fieldwork cannot entirely replace regular fieldwork, but can function as a supplement, making normal fieldwork more efficient and therefore cheaper.

Keywords: Geomorphology, LiDAR, LiDAR derived products, GIS, Digital fieldwork, digital identification, Hillshade, DEM, Geomorphology, Geomorpholocial map, Relict charcoal hearth, relict combat site, Brandenburg, Germany

Click here to see: Page 10: Figure 4. Suspected and confirmed RCHs on the Lange Horstberge of BSc field research of 2018 and field research of 2019 and theoretical research of A. Schneider (2017).

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Appendix_D1_Page_37_Legend_Geomorphological_Map_Bachelor_Thesis_Marin_Schadee_UvA_2020.jpg

Name: Marin Schadee

Bachelor Thesis

Supervisor: Dr. W.M. de Boer and
2nd supervisor: Dr. W.D. Gosling

Year: 2020

Creating a geomorphological map of a formerly glaciated area in Brandenburg, Germany - A study in the creation of a geomorphological map and legend of the Baruther Ice-Marginal Valley without the possibility of fieldwork

The Baruther Ice-Marginal Valley has interesting geomorphological genesis as it lies between two terminal moraines from different glaciations; (fluvio)glacial, aeolian and anthropogenic processes have formed the valley as it is today. Due to the Covid19 pandemic, it is prohibited to perform live fieldwork and all has to be done digitally. The availability of LiDAR data allows us for detailed digital research of the area and combined with existing literature this research has set out to create a large scale geomorphological map that was missing before this. This map will be created following a legend made in this research that is based upon older German legends of areas of similar morphogenesis. The created legend is suitable for areas of (fluvio)glacial genesis and contains landforms that make this valley unique such as Relict Charcoal Hearths and military. The geomorphological map of the valley is compliant with expectations: dominant fluvioglacial processes, followed by aeolian and anthropogenic landforms on top from a later stage in history. Mapping in ArcGIS Pro is easier as it allows for overlaying of maps and results and automatically applies symbology and legends. However, because of this, it is impossible to apply a different size of symbol to the same code carrying landform and thus will always be displayed the same size.

Keywords: Geomorphology, LiDAR, LiDAR derived products, GIS, genesis, Baruther Ice-Marginal Valley, Urstromtal, map, Digital, ArcGIS Pro, symbology, Brandenburg, Germany

Click here to see: Page 37: Appendix D1. Legend of the Geomorphological Map of the Central Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley by Stefan Geskus, Berend Luimes, Jeroen de Nobel, Martijn Romar, Marin Schadee, Stef Zuidervaart under guidance of Dr. W.M. (Thijs) de Boer.

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Name: Stef Zuidervaart

Bachelor Thesis

Supervisor: Dr. W.M. de Boer and
2nd supervisor: Dr. E.E. van Loon

Year: 2020

The creation of a large scale Geomorphological map of the Central Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley

The Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley in Brandenburg, Germany is an interesting area were a lot of research has taken place. However, there is never a geomorphological map developed of the fieldwork area in the Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley. Due to Covid-19 it is not possible to visit the fieldwork area and thus this paper aims to see if it is possible to develop a detailed geomorphological map without visiting the fieldwork area, solely relying on the available (online) data of the fieldwork area. Different data sources as LiDAR data, Web Map Services (WMS) and known research data is utilised to develop a detailed geomorphological map. Next to the creation of the geomorphological map, this research also aims to identify potential Relic Charcoal Hearths (RCH) and to understand the genesis of two dune areas within the fieldwork area. The development of a detailed geomorphological map solely digitally is possible, although the precision of the geomorphological map still needs to be determined. Furthermore, several potential RCHs are identified within the fieldwork area and need to be validated in future study years. The genesis of the dune areas is constructed and indications of a north to south wind direction are found.

Keywords: Geomorphology, Geomorphological map, LiDAR, LiDAR data, LiDAR derived products, GIS, Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley, Baruther Urstromtal, Relic Charcoal Hearths, Dunes, Brandenburg, Germany

Click here to see: Page 21: Figure 16: potential relic charcoal hearths locations.

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Figure 03 Page 09 Bachelor Thesis Rob Burger UvA 2019.jpg

Name: Rob Burger

Bachelor Thesis

Supervisor: Dr. W.M. de Boer and
2nd supervisor: Dr. A.C. Seijmonsbergen

Year: 2019

Relict charcoal hearths in the Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley: detection, soil analysis and mobile data management using ESRI Collector App and ArcGIS Online

In pre-industrial times wood and the more energy-dense charcoal were the first choice to supply energy. To generate large quantities of charcoal and to promote iron production, relict charcoal hearths (RCHs) were built. Charcoal hearths are characterized by charcoal remains in the soil, elevated plateaus and small depressions, which make the charcoal hearths still visible in contemporary landscape. Recent developments in GIS techniques and LiDAR technology have made it possible to detect potential locations of charcoal hearths. This research aims to identify the charcoal hearths with a one-week fieldwork period. This is combined with analyzing the soil properties of charcoal hearths and by optimizing the use of the ESRI Collector App. The ESRI Collector App is an application in which data can be stored. During fieldwork, 48 relict charcoal hearths have been found all on or around the Lange Horstberge (a dune complex in the middle of the fieldwork area). The upper part of RCH soils contains more organic matter and is therefore thicker than in other soils. The abundance and the size of the charcoal remains has to be respectively high and large enough to validate a RCH. The use of the Collector App has been improved by adding a new form for the characteristics of a RCH. Vegetation and soil variables have been created in this form, which also includes drop down lists. Because the research time was limited, future studies will need to validate the outcomes of this thesis.

Keywords: LiDAR, Central Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley, Baruther Urstromtal, relict charcoal hearths, DEM, ESRI, Collector App, Lange Horst Berge, Hammerfliess, geomorphology, genesis, anthropogenic history, soil analysis, drone images, ArcGIS, Schoebendorf, Horstwalde, Baruth

Click here to see: Page 9: Figure 3. Location of the points registered in 2019. Red dots indicate locations where no RCH has been found. Green dots indicate confirmed RCHs. Burger, 2019.

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Figure_04_Page_11_Bachelor_Thesis_Myrthe_Detiger_UvA_2019.jpg

Name: Myrthe Detiger

Bachelor Thesis

Supervisor: Dr. W.M. de Boer and
2nd supervisor: Dr. A.C. Seijmonsbergen

Year: 2019

The identification of potential Indicator Plants for Relict Charcoal Hearth soil properties - an analysis for the soil variables: Moisture, Nitrogen and Reactivity

Since leftovers of the charcoal production have been found and the concept of Relict Charcoal Hearths (RCHs) has been introduced, various research has been focussed on identifying the location and properties of these anthropogenically created geomorphological features. Since recommendations, by among others Hirsch et al. 2018 and Schneider et al. 2018, have been given to explore possible relationships between RCHs and the vegetation occurring on them, this research focuses on identifying potential indicator plants for the RCH properties Moisture, Nitrogen and Reactivity. 48 RCH locations have been identified in the fieldwork area near Horstwalde, Brandenburg, Germany; n total 39 plant species were found on and around these RCHs. For each plant species the Ellenberg Indicator Values (EIVs) were looked up for the three soil factors Moisture, Nitrogen and Reactivity, and a binary system was created to see how many times each plant matched the EIV of a soil variable. In this way plants could gain a score up to 3, which indicated their potential as indicator plant for the RCH soil properties of the three studied soil factors. Alliaria petiolata turned out to be the most promising potential indicator plant. However, the most distinguishing soil properties of RCHs – their carbon content and temperature regime – were not taken into account. Neither were the abundance and frequency of plants, which also influences their suitability as indicator plant. Taking these factors into account would be interesting for future research.

Keywords: Relict Charcoal Hearts (RCHs), Ellenberg Indicator Values (EIVs), Indicator plants, LiDAR, Central Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley, Baruther Urstromtal, DEM, ESRI, Collector App, Lange Horst Berge, Hammerfliess, geomorphology, genesis, anthropogenic history, soil analysis, drone images, ArcGIS, Schoebendorf, Horstwalde, Baruth

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Figure 12. DEM and profile graph derived from the LiDAR 2011 and from the drone images in May 2019. Same scale shows that the DEM derived from the drone images has a much higher resolution than the DEM derived from the LiDAR 2011.

Name: Marjolein Gevers

Bachelor Thesis

Supervisor: Dr. W.M. de Boer and
2nd supervisor: Dr. A.C. Seijmonsbergen

Year: 2019

Use of drone-derived products for the detection of Relict Charcoal Hearts in Brandenburg, Germany.

This research focusses on the detection of Relic Charcoal Hearts in Brandenburg, Germany. The aim is to map RCH’s and to see if it is possible to use drone derived products such as an orthomosaic, a dense point cloud and a digital elevation model to map RCH’s differently. This research showed that drone-derived products can be used to map RCH’s differently. This was done by the use of Agisoft Metashape to process the drone pictures and ArcGIS 10.6 to process the drone derived products. Important best practices were also found: use of ground control points, use of Agisoft metashape and the workflow during the drone flight.

Keywords: LiDAR, Central Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley, Baruther Urstromtal, relict charcoal hearths, drone images, DEM, ESRI, Collector App, Lange Horst Berge, Hammerfliess, geomorphology, genesis, anthropogenic history, soil analysis, , ArcGIS, Schoebendorf, Horstwalde, Baruth

Click here to see: Figure 12. DEM and profile graph derived from the LiDAR 2011 and from the drone images in May 2019. Same scale shows that the DEM derived from the drone images has a much higher resolution than the DEM derived from the LiDAR 2011. Gevers, 2019.

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Figure_06_Page_13_Bachelor_Thesis_Seda_Unver_UvA_2019.jpg

Name: Seda Unver

Bachelor Thesis

Supervisor: Dr. W.M. de Boer and
2nd supervisor: Dr. A.C. Seijmonsbergen

Year: 2019

The spatial relationship between relic charcoal hearths and soil organic carbon (leftover biochar) on forest vegetation - Research and fieldwork based in the Horstwalde area, Germany

During the 17th-19th century, charcoal production in forests was mainly used for heating and as a raw material for iron production. It is made by piling dry wood in pits or mounds covered with leaves and earth, where after the pile is set on fire. The mount eventually smolders in partially anoxic conditions for a couple of days to weeks to eventually form charcoal. This pre-industrial charcoal production resulted in micro geomorphological differences in the landscape. Relict charcoal hearths are recognizable in field with a distinct small raised bed, a donut shaped form with a surrounding raised ring or a small elevation in a forest with dirt roads leading to it and away from it. These dirt roads were made to transport the cut wood and charcoal to the main road. RCHs are often round or ellipse shaped forms and between 7 to 10 meters. In this research the aim is to detect RCHs in-field in the Baruth region (Brandenburg, Germany). During desktop research, LiDAR derived images and a combination of digital elevation models (DEMs), slope, hillshade and aspect maps is used to map the relict charcoal hearths. Often manual mapping of RCHs results in false detections (trees, ditches and power pylons) and a profile graph can be created here to decrease inaccuracy in the future. The secondary aim is to analyze how relict charcoal hearths influence the soil properties and how this affects the vegetation in the study area. The leftover charcoal parts act like organic biochar that result in a higher content of enriched organic matter and carbon content (SOM and PyOM) which change properties of the soil. The vegetation data includes diversity, density, length, perimeter and coverage. These variables are based on young saplings and herbaceous cover, including full-grown trees. Based on this data, statistical analyses are conducted in RStudio v1.1.45 as well as in Microsoft Excel (2016). Results show that there was no significant correlation between the amount of charcoal parts in the soil and the vegetation. To improve the methodologies and reduce uncertainties to increase validity, a more thorough and precise research on a larger scale should be conducted. This includes analyzing the altered soil properties on relict charcoal hearths not only with the help of the WRB, but also through laboratory work by checking the theories about carbon content, water content and organic matter in relict charcoal hearth areas compared to non-hearth areas.

Keywords: LiDAR, Central Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley, Baruther Urstromtal, relict charcoal hearths, ArcGIS, geoarchaeology, Brandenburg, soil properties, biochar, vegetation DEM, ESRI, Collector App, Lange Horst Berge, Hammerfliess, geomorphology, genesis, anthropogenic history, soil analysis, drone images, Schoebendorf, Horstwalde, Baruth

Click here to see: Page 14: Figure 8. Pictured left is a charcoal part with some fine roots attached to it and running through fractured parts of the charcoal. Pictured right is a coarse well-rooted soil on two different RCHs with visible charcoal parts. Unver, 2019.

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BSc Thesis UvA Page 11 Chanika Schraa

Name: Chanika Schraa

Bachelor Thesis

Supervisor: Dr. W.M. de Boer and
2nd supervisor: Dr. A.C. Seijmonsbergen

Year: 2018

Dispersion of relict charcoal hearths and its relation to historic river features in Horstwalde, Brandenburg, Germany

Charcoal was a highly needed source of energy and was widely used between the 17th and 19th centuries (Raab et al., 2015). Previous research (Schneider, 2018) has shown that the area around Horstwalde, Brandenburg shows signs of pre-industrial charcoal production in the form of relict charcoal hearths. This research investigates how RCHs were dispersed in relation to geomorphological landscape features. The research was conducted on a 2 by 2 km area surrounding the village of Horstwalde, Brandenburg. The resesarch area is known for its parabolic dunes (Fiedler, 1955; De Boer, 1990; De Boer, 2000) and previous research has shown the presence of paleo river streams in the landscape (Koning, 2017; Boone, 2017). The RCHs were detected using LiDAR data and ArcGIS. The paleo river features were detected using a broad range of data and maps. Throughout the process, ArcGIS Modelbuilder was used to document the process. Results show that the dunes were a preferred area for building a RCH. RCHs were also found to be more common closer to the paleo streams, showing an exponential relation. However, the RCHs that were located in agricultural fields (16 out of 45) showed that the placement of RCHs in proximity to rivers was random, which leads to the belief that detection of RCH sites that were partly destroyed by ploughing could cause distortions in research results. When the 16 RCHs located in agricultural fields were excluded, the exponential relation of placement of RCHs in proximity to paleo river features increased.

Keywords: LiDAR, Central Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley, Baruther Urstromtal, relict charcoal hearths, DEM, Hammerfliess, geomorphology, genesis, anthropogenic history, soil analysis, drone images, ArcGIS, Schoebendorf, Horstwalde, Baruth

Click here to see: Page 11: Fig. 8: ArcGIS map depicting the detected RCHs located in the flatland (agricultural fields and forest) of the research area and their distance to the nearest paleo stream site together with the depiction of six buffer zones each corresponding with a percentage of RCHs measured within this buffer zone. Schraa, 2018.

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BSc Thesis UvA Page 10 Lukas Struiksma

Name: Lukas Struiksma

Bachelor Thesis

Supervisor: Dr. W.M. de Boer and
2nd supervisor: Dr. A.C. Seijmonsbergen

Year: 2018

A spatial and statistical analysis of the size, slope and land cover of relict charcoal hearths near Horstwalde, Germany

Charcoal hearths experienced a golden age during the period leading up to the Industrial Revolution, as population growth, large-scale conflict and transportation increased the need for smelted iron and tar. Charcoal production led to the establishment of numerous charcoal hearths in the Brandenburg state of Germany. Mainly covered in forests during the era of large-scale charcoal production, the land cover was ideal for charcoal production since wood was in plentiful supply. The geomorphology of the landscape surrounding the study area near Horstwalde lends itself to two distinct and different types of charcoal hearths. The parabolic dunes and glacial ice pushed ridge offer the needed slope for sloped hearths, while the intermittent flatland in between these dunes is more suitable for flatter hearths. This study aims to show any statistical relationships that may exist between the size, slope and former land cover of the hearths located near Horstwalde. It uses DEMs produced using LIDAR data to measure slope and size of several hearths. A topographic map made in 1841 is used to determine former land cover. The results show a strong relationship between inner and outer slopes, a weaker relationship between slopes and sizes, and a large variance in both slopes and sizes coinciding with a variance in land cover.

Keywords: LiDAR, Central Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley, Baruther Urstromtal, relict charcoal hearths, DEM, size, slope, inner slope, outer slope, former land cover, statistical relationships, Hammerfliess, geomorphology, genesis, anthropogenic history, soil analysis, drone images, ArcGIS, Schoebendorf, Horstwalde, Baruth

Click here to see: Page 10: Fig. 3: Figure 3: A suspected charcoal hearth in (from left to right) a hillshade map and DEM, with the characteristic two ditches and a higher middle in the right cross section. Struiksma, 2018.

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BSc Thesis UvA Page 8 Fig. 3 Paolo Tasseron

Name: Paolo Tasseron

Bachelor Thesis

Supervisor: Dr. W.M. de Boer and
2nd supervisor: Dr. A.C. Seijmonsbergen

Year: 2018

Dispersion of relict charcoal hearths and its relation to historic river features in Horstwalde, Brandenburg, Germany

In pre-industrial times, intensive charcoal burning occurred in the Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley (Brandenburg, Germany) because a growing population caused an increased demand for energy in the iron industry. Extensive evidence exists that charcoal was produced in distinct circular shaped charcoal hearths, of which remains are still discernible in the contempora1y landscape. This research aims to semi automatically detect and identify these relict charcoal hearths (RCHs) by using LiDAR derived datasets, ArcPy and OpenCV image processing modules in Python. This is realised by computing correlation values between geometrically optimised templates and a combination of digital elevation models (DEMs), topographic position index (TPI) datasets and slope datasets. A secondary aim is to assess the difference between using 0.5-meter and 1.0-meter resolution datasets with various ground point densities (GPDs) and its effects on the accuracy of automated detection. The relevance of automated feature detection in archaeology is to minimise subjectivity in object detection and to accelerate the process of documenting historic land use types in Brandenburg. The results show that the simple rigid template matching approach is to a certain extent suitable in achieving semi-automated RCH detection. It becomes evident that for both 0.5-meter and 1.0-meter resolution datasets, the detection accuracy increases significantly with increasing RCH size. Yet. 1.0-meter datasets are significantly more resistant to downsampled GPDs than 0.5-meter datasets. The 1.0-meter datasets show rather consistent accuracies over GPDs ranging from 0.19 to 1.92 points per m2 ( 45.1 - 56.4% of RCHs with diameter > 10 m correctly detected) whereas the 0.5-meter datasets resulted in sharply declining accuracies. ranging from 29.0% to 60.9%. Significant improvements in detection accuracies can be realised by using increased GPDs in combination with multiple morphometric variables and segmented image processing techniques. LiDAR data provides numerous possibilities for automated object detection and could well be the start of a new era of archaeology. Yet, it should be acknowledged that visual analysis and fieldwork remain imperative to achieve satisfactory results.

Keywords: LiDAR, Central Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley, Baruther Urstromtal, relict charcoal hearths, template matching, charcoal remains, geoarchaeology. airborne laser scanning, Hammerfliess, geomorphology, genesis, anthropogenic history, soil analysis, drone images, ArcGIS, Schoebendorf, Horstwalde, Baruth

Click here to see: Page 8: Fig. 5: igure 5: Three types of templates used in the automated mapping process (templates of diameter = 18 meter are shown). Tasseron, 2018.

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BSc Thesis UvA Page 9 Fig. 4 Frans Wijkhuizen

Name: Frans Wijkhuizen

Bachelor Thesis

Supervisor: Dr. W.M. de Boer and
2nd supervisor: Dr. A.C. Seijmonsbergen

Year: 2018

Relict Charcoal Hearths in the Horstwalde area: Comparing the first Charcoal Hearths found in open fields with hearths found in forest and using historical maps and soil profiles to explain site choosing

Researchers from Cottbus University have located 1500 potential relict charcoal hearths (RCHs) with an automated program and manual inspection around Luckenwalde, Germany. These RCHs are visible on LiDAR derived maps as circular or elliptical elevations with a diameter between 6 and 28 meters. Large piles of wood were stacked and burned with a controlled oxygen concentration to create charcoal. This charcoal was needed for smelting bog iron, which was done in ‘Die Schmelze’ near Horstwalde. Striking is the fact that a negligibly small amount of RCHs is located in an open field, all are found in forests. No research suggests their existence neither is stated that they don’t exist. This research focusses on locating these RCHs and comparing their external features with the ones found in forest. Their locations will be explained and the relation between RCHs and distance to historic roads will be discussed. During one week of fieldwork, potential RCHs, located with LiDAR derived maps, were visited and validated. Soil profiles were made as these or not often discussed and helped explaining site choosing. Further analysis was done in ArcMap and Matlab. Fieldwork revealed 40 RCHs of which 10 in open fields. Significant differences between height and diameter were found which probably originate from anthropogenic and zoogenic erosion. Soil profiles proved to be clear indicators for RCH locations. Almost 95% of the RCHs were located within 50 meters of historic roads, suggesting to historic roads could be used as a proxy to determine the likeliness of potential RCHs. This thesis gives first insight in RCHs in open fields and a broad overview of why the confirmed locations were chosen. As fieldwork time was limited and the data set just large enough to work with, future studies will need to validate the outcomes of this thesis.

Keywords: LiDAR, Central Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley, Baruther Urstromtal, relict charcoal hearths, Hammerfliess, geomorphology, genesis, anthropogenic history, soil analysis, drone images, open field, historic roads, ArcGIS, Matlab, Schoebendorf, Horstwalde, Baruth

Click here to see: Page 9: Fig. 4: Locations of the 3 charcoal hearth types. Wijkhuizen, 2018.

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Name: Jorinde Guldenaar

Bachelor Thesis

Supervisor:
Dr. A.C. Seijmonsbergen and 2nd supervisor: Dr. W.M. de Boer

Year: 2017

A new method to calculate the geodiversity index of volcanic hotspot islands: The Hawaiian archipelago.

A new method to calculate the geodiversity index of volcanic hotspot islands: The Hawaiian archipelago.

Keywords: geodiversity, geodiversity index, Hawaii, volcanic hotspots

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Name: Josephine Schuurman

Bachelor Thesis

Supervisor:
Dr. A.C. Seijmonsbergen and 2nd supervisor:

Year: 2017

Quantifying present human influence in the Amazon rainforest: a comparison of object-based land-use land-cover classification with vegetation indices and a digital elevation model.

Quantifying present human influence in the Amazon rainforest: a comparison of object-based land-use land-cover classification with vegetation indices and a digital elevation model.

Keywords: human influence, Amazon rainforest

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Name: Mirte Steenkamp

Bachelor Thesis

Supervisor:
Dr. A.C. Seijmonsbergen and 2nd supervisor:

Year: 2017

The Effects of Human Activity on Ecosystem Structure in Amazonia.

The Effects of Human Activity on Ecosystem Structure in Amazonia.

Keywords: human influence, ecosystem structure, Amazonia

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Name: Floris Veloo

Bachelor Thesis

Supervisor:
Dr. A.C. Seijmonsbergen and 2nd supervisor:

Year: 2017

A new method to analyze seafloor geodiversity around the Hawaiian and Canarian archipelagos and the New Zealand subduction zone.

A new method to analyze seafloor geodiversity around the Hawaiian and Canarian archipelagos and the New Zealand subduction zone.

Keywords: seafloor geodiversity, Hawaii, Canarian archipelagos, New Zealand subduction zone

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Name: Roos van Wees

Bachelor Thesis

Supervisor:
Dr. A.C. Seijmonsbergen and 2nd supervisor:

Year: 2017

Towards objective evaluation of UNESCO Global Geoparks using a Geodiversity Index, in Fiordland national Park, New Zealand.

Towards objective evaluation of UNESCO Global Geoparks using a Geodiversity Index, in Fiordland national Park, New Zealand.

Keywords: geoparks, geodiversity, UNESCO, Fiordland national Park, New Zealand zone

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BSc Thesis UvA Page 12 Khymo Moestadja

Name: Rosa Boone

Bachelor Thesis

Supervisor:
Dr. W.M. de Boer and 2nd supervisor: Dr. A.M. Kooijman

Year: 2017

Validating the reconstructed former flow of the paleo drainage system in the vicinity of the present Hammerfliess in the Central Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley, Germany

In 2017, R. Koning investigated the presumed former flow path of the channel the Hammerfliess called ‘Golia’ in South-East Brandenburg, Germany, that flows through the Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley. The Hammerfliess channel that was created in 1750 was canalized in the 1970’s because of the ‘Komplexmelioration’ for agricultural reasons but now the users of the area concerning agriculture, forestry and nature conservation have been experiencing negative effects regarding the water balance due to these changes and now the Flächenagentur Brandenburg GmbH (Area Agency Brandenburg GmbH) is trying to give the channel back its former flow. Before the creation of the channel, there already existed a water stream that flowed through the area, which was called ‘Golia’. R. Koning investigated this former flow in his master thesis with existing LiDAR data, infrared recordings, aerial photos and historic maps. In this bachelor thesis, the predicted former flow path is attempted to be validated with core samples taken in the field for the path near Horstwalde, between Schoebendorf and Horstwalde in South Brandenburg (Northeast Germany). The presence of a former water rich environment could be validated with the difference of clay content between the samples, presence of undecomposed organic material and coarse sand sediments found in the agricultural field. In addition, data from drone images processed with Agisoft Photoscan professional was used to create a DEM and a orthomosaic which were used for analyzing the former flow path in the field and was compared to the already existing data for its usefulness. The orthomosaic from the drone images turned out to be a useful addition to the existing data in a way that it is a quick and relative cheap way to get detailed images of the area compared to LiDAR data. The DEM was in a lesser extend a useful addition because of a computational error reported as the ‘bowl effect’.

Keywords: LiDAR, Central Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley, Baruther Urstromtal, former flow path, Hammerfliess, Golia, geomorphology, genesis, anthropogenic history, soil analysis, drone images, Schoebendorf, Horstwalde

Click here to see: Page 12: Sample points and cross-section lines as possible flow directions visualised in pink on the DEM made from the LAS data (point clouds) for the Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley (Koning, 2017). Boone, 2017.

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BSc Thesis UvA Page 12 Khymo Moestadja

Name: Khymo Moestadja

Bachelor Thesis

Supervisor:
Dr. W.M. de Boer and 2nd supervisor: Dr. A.M. Kooijman

Year: 2017

Physical Geographical research on the natural and/or anthropogenic genesis of circular depressions southeast of Horstwalde, in the Baruth Ice-Marginal valley, Brandenburg, Germany

The Central Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley originated during the last two glacial stages, the Saalian and the Weichselian. The area has been affected by glaciation and a wide variety of morphologic features are known. Extensive research has been conducted into the extensive dunes known in the area, however little to no detailed research has been done on lake development. What lacks is the detailed analysis of the two circular depressions near Horstwalde. The depressions have a width of 300 meter and the periphery is increased to a rim. This research will focus on the genesis of the two circular depressions with the use of LiDAR data, field observations and literature. The data will be used to analyse the palaeohydrology near Horstwalde. Knowledge of regional palaeohydrology is of great importance in understanding current environmental issues, such as hydrologic changes, impact of land use strategies and water restoration.

Keywords: LiDAR, Central Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley, Baruther Urstromtal, Parabolic Dunes, geomorphology, genesis, anthropogenic history, soil analysis, drone images, Schoebendorf

Click here to see: Page 12: Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with cross section of circular depressions between Horstwalde and Schoebendorf Moestadja, 2017.

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BSc Thesis UvA Figure 7 Page 11 Romee Prijden

Name: Romee Prijden

Bachelor Thesis

Supervisor:
Dr. W.M. de Boer and 2nd supervisor: Dr. A.M. Kooijman

Year: 2017

The LiDAR-based identification and field validation of geomorphologic structures in the Central Baruther Ice-marginal valley, Germany

Geomorphologic processes have been investigated intensively in the Central Baruther Ice-marginal valley, but not everything is fully understood. Understanding these processes is important for planning (sustainable) development within those landscapes. Eastern Germany’s geomorphology is characterized by the remnants of processes from the periglacial and glacial periods of the quaternary ice ages. Aeolian depositions, such as dunes, characterize the area. However, dunes are being exploited as a source of sand and therefor become unidentifiable over time. In response to this, LiDAR data was searched for small unidentified singularities. This study focuses on the identification of geomorphological structures, in particular parabolic dunes, with the use of LiDAR data. By studying different land surface parameters (LSP’s) of the LiDAR data, two presumed dunes were found and chosen as study objects for the research. The dunes were investigated with three different methods. First, a comprehensive literature study was performed to research the morphogenetic history. Second, the soil characteristics of the presumed dunes were investigated by performing field work. New aerial images were captured during fieldwork with a drone. Third, the surface features that were stored in the LiDAR data were analyzed. The presumed dunes share similar soil characteristics and surface features. It was concluded that the identification of geomorphologic features, solely based on LiDAR data, is not accurate. However, LiDAR data is very useful for mapping shapes and different surface features.

Keywords: LiDAR, Central Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley, Baruther Urstromtal, Parabolic Dunes, geomorphology, genesis, anthropogenic history, soil analysis, drone images, Schoebendorf

Click here to see: Page 9: Figure 7: An overview of the soil profile locations with a schematic overview of the profiles of dune 1 (profile 1-7) and dune 2 (profile 8-11) . The profiles are drawn roughly on scale. The true depths and soil characteristics of the profiles can be found in the appendix 1. Prijden, 2017.

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BSc Thesis UvA Page 11 Yosta Schuuring

Name: Yosta Schuuring

Bachelor Thesis

Supervisor:
Dr. W.M. de Boer and 2nd supervisor: Dr. A.M. Kooijman

Year: 2017

Mapping the genesis, geomorphological and anthropogenic history of the Lange Horstberge dune in the Central Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley, Baruther Urstromtal, Germany, using LiDAR data, soil analysis and drone images

This research studied the geomorphological and anthropogenic history of the Lange Horstberge dune complex, located in the Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley, Baruther Urstromtal, eastern Germany. The Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley is formed by melting ice from the ice caps during the Weichselian ice age. Aeolian processes transported large amounts of fine and loose material and formed various dunes, such as the Lange Horstberge. This research studied the geomorphological and anthropogenic history of the Lange Horstberge using LiDAR data, old topographic maps, drone images and soil drills. LiDAR data points where processed with ArcGIS software. Derived products such as a slope map, an elevation map, profile figures and a Digital Elevation Model where created. These maps indicated a transverse shape of the Lange Horstberge. Results from the soil drills indicated an existence of a primary and secondary dune divided by an organic layer. This organic layer contains clay and peat on the sides of the dune, which indicates a wet and warm environment. Furthermore, anthropogenic influence on the Lange Horstberge has been extensive throughout history. Mainly due to sand excavation between 1841 and 1941. The photos taken by a DJI phantom 3 drone could not been processed by photo recognition software due to the vegetation on top of the Lange Horstberge, and therefore a 3D model could not be created. However, photos from a 450m height did help determine anthropogenic influence and difference in vegetation growth on the Lange Horstberge. A literature study about the paleo climate and paleo wind directions indicates that the organic layer could belong to the Allerød interstadial. Furthermore, the paleo wind directions from before and after the Allerød differ. Hence, the shape of the primary and secondary dune could be different.

Keywords: LiDAR, Central Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley, Baruther Urstromtal, Lange Horstberge, geomorphology, genesis, anthropogenic history, soil analysis, drone images

Click here to see: Page 11: Side view of the Lange Horstberge with visualization of soil drills. Schuuring, 2017.

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BSc Thesis UvA Table 3 Toon van Holthe tot Echten

Name: Toon van Holthe tot Echten

Bachelor Thesis

Supervisor:
Dr. W.M. de Boer and 2nd supervisor: Dr. A.M. Kooijman

Year: 2017

Geomorphological research on the genesis of the Lange Horst Berge dunes in the Central Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley (Brandenburg, Germany) with the help of remote sensing and fieldwork observations

This geomorphological research questions the genesis of the Lange Horst Berge dunes located in the Central Baruth Ice-Marginal valley (Brandenburg Germany). The genesis is investigated with the help of remote sensing consisting of LiDAR and drone images. During the fieldwork the surroundings of the Lange Horst Berge are described and soils are classified in order to determine the environment and period in which the Lange Horst Berge was formed. Also the occurance of marker horizons in the Lange Horst Berge could help determine the period in which the dune was formed. Using the remote sensing technologies, the shape of the dune was investigated. A relatively new way of creating third dimensional maps with the help of a drone was tested. This however, had no additional value for the determination of the Lange Horst Berge. Through creating digital elevation models in GIS characterizing features of the Lange Horst Berge were found.

Keywords: LiDAR, Central Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley, Baruther Urstromtal, Lange Horstberge, geomorphology, genesis, anthropogenic history, soil analysis, drone images

Click here to see: Table 3: Overview of the conclusions made during this research with generalized and simplified figures of the Lange Horst Berge, Toon van Holthe tot Echten, 2017.

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BSc Peter Haacke

Name: Peter Haacke

Bachelor Thesis

Supervisor:
Dr. W.M. de Boer and 2nd supervisor: Dr. A.C. Seijmonsbergen

Year: 2016

Semi-automated mapping of geomorphological features in the Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley using LiDAR-data. - Applying isolation, segmentation and automatisation to LiDAR-data via Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA)

Recent advancements in technology has made it possible to obtain LiDAR data much faster. The methods of analysing this data are rapidly growing. This research describes the different possibilities of object based image analysis using eCognition, ArcGIS, LAStools and Python. By classifying dunes in the Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley with the use of different land surface parameters we aim to provide a basis on which further research can be build. We find that using OBIA for the isolation of geomorphological objects is still a difficult task and that there is no single method to achieve reliable results. By using a combination of the software it is however possible to achieve favourable results which shows promising development for the future of semi-automated mapping.

Keywords: LiDAR, Central Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley, Baruther Urstromtal, semi-automatic mapping, Object Based Image Analysis, OBIA, isolation, segmentation, automatisation

click here to see: Figure 19: The ruleset used in eCognition for RGB and the resulting map.

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Carlijn Snoek

Name: Carlijn Snoek

Bachelor Thesis

Supervisor:
Dr. W.M. de Boer and 2nd supervisor: Dr. A.C. Seijmonsbergen

Year: 2016

The morphogenetic history of a parabolic dune complex - Mapping the morphogenesis and relative dating of the parabolic dune complex of Horstwalde in the Central Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley, Germany, using LiDAR data

The Central Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley and surroundings are rich in aeolian deposits and landscape forms, among which the parabolic dunes of Horstwalde. Vegetation, wind speed and directionality play a large role in the genesis and development of parabolic dunes. The dune complex of Horstwalde is a good example of the complex interaction between these forming factors. The sequence is examined using high-resolution LiDAR data combined with a compilation of dating records of the study area in order to investigate the morphogenetic history of the dunes. The complex is assumed to be divided into three segments that represent different periods of formation, that can possibly be linked to the Oldest Dryas, Older Dryas and Younger Dryas. These segments are divided by significantly varying mean crest orientation, elevation, slope and aspect regimes. It is proposed that the eastern section is the oldest, decreasing in age as the dunes are located more to the west. The main period of dune formation is estimated to be between 13 and 10 kya, coinciding with the Late Weichselian Period.

Keywords: parabolic dune complex, LiDAR, Horstwalde, Central Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley, Baruther Urstromtal, morphogenesis, relative dating

click here to see: Fig. 27: Map of depositional stages of the dune complex of Horstwalde.

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Name: Agnethe Postema

Bachelor Thesis

Supervisor:
Dr. A.C. Seijmonsbergen and 2nd supervisor: Astrid Ruiter MSc.

Year: 2016

Periglacial landscape change in Northern Alaska during the past 30 years.

Periglacial landscape change in Northern Alaska during the past 30 years.

Keywords: periglacial, landscape, Alaska

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Name: Michelle Schouten

Bachelor Thesis

Supervisor:
Dr. A.C. Seijmonsbergen and 2nd supervisor: Astrid Ruiter MSc.

Year: 2016

The influence of elevation and slope angle on periglacial landforms and processes in northern Canada.

The influence of elevation and slope angle on periglacial landforms and processes in northern Canada.

Keywords: elevation, slope angle, periglacial landforms, periglacial processes

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Name: Veerle Tuijnman

Bachelor Thesis

Supervisor:
Dr. A.C. Seijmonsbergen and 2nd supervisor: Astrid Ruiter MSc.

Year: 2016

Land use/ land cover changes in relation to bioclimatic belts on Tenerife.

Land use/ land cover changes in relation to bioclimatic belts on Tenerife.

Keywords: land use, land cover

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Babs Hagendoorn

Name: Babs Hagendoorn

Bachelor Thesis

Supervisor:
Dr. A.C. Seijmonsbergen and 2nd supervisor: Dr. J.G.B. Oostermeijer

Year: 2015

Relating Biodiversity to Geodiversity in a Mountain Ecosystem in Vorarlberg

The decline and extinction of species and the loss of habitat and landscape connectivity have resulted in an increased importance of biodiversity. A relatively new approach is to focus on the abiotic environment instead of on individual species. Diversity of geological, geomorphological and soil features is also referred to as "geodiversity". It is hypothesized that a high geodiversity results in a high biodiversity since a diverse geo-environment provides lots of space for species to inhabit. The aim of this study was to develop a GIS-based method to quantify and compare geodiversity and biodiversity. This was done in the alpine area Vorarlberg. The method consisted of 1) dividing the area into equal cells using a grid, 2) calculating the geodiversity index and 3) biodiversity index in each grid cell, 4) investigating the relationship between the geodiversity and biodiversity indices, 5) adjusting the geodiversity index and examine if the new geodiversity index could explain a greater part of the biodiversity variability and 6) adding ranking to investigate if this could improve the relation. The geodiversity and biodiversity index were successfully created in a GIS based manner and a positive relation between the two indices was observed. Adjusting the geodiversity index showed that elevation, slope and solar radiation diversity were the most important parameters for explaining biodiversity. Adding a ranking to the different geodiversity parameters did not improve the geodiversity index greatly. Altogether, this study shows a successful way of calculating a geodiversity index and correlating it to biodiversity. The results showed that a maximum of 12.5% of the variety in biodiversity could be explained by geodiversity, adjusting the parameters could improve this in further research.

Keywords: Geodiversity, Biodiversity, Conservation, Vorarlberg

Image on front cover page click here : 1000 x 1000 m grid cells in the province of Vorarlberg for the 1984-1989 dataset (left), the 2005-2009 data set (middle) and the biotope probability data sets (right).

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BSc Peter Haacke

Name: Ivana Post

Bachelor Thesis

Supervisor:
Dr. W.M. de Boer and 2nd supervisor: Dr. A.C. Seijmonsbergen

Year: 2015

Using LiDAR datasets of the northern part of the Baruth Ice-Marginal valley Baruth (Brandenburg, Germany): to improve existing geomorphological maps with derived break lines at macro-, meso- and micro-level.

This research focuses on a determination of landforms, at macro, meso and microlevel of the Baruth Ice-Marginal valley in Brandenburg. These landforms/structures will be determined with the use of LiDAR datasets and the software program ArcGIS (Geographical Information System of the company ESRI). LiDAR datasets are 3D high-resolution datasets, including x-, y-, z-values, which can be used for analyzing landscapes and creating derivative maps. Due to its accuracy, LiDAR datasets offer new possibilities in the field of landscape analysis. The Baruth Ice-Marginal valley shows clear evidence that the last two ice ages (Weichselian and Saalian) have had a big influence on its landscape, such as the Baruther sander/outwash plain, the push moraines and the glacial valley. These landforms result in height differences, which LiDAR data nicely show in their datasets. This makes the Central Baruth Ice-Marginal valley just west of the city of Baruth a good candidate for further analysis. The maps that were created in previous research were drawn by hand and later digitized with ArcGIS, however not referenced with the detailed LiDAR images that can be used nowadays. At this moment there is an existing geomorphological 1:25.000 map legend (GMK) (Appendix A), which will be used as an existing reference, however the color-codes in the new map will differ from this GMK legend. Therefore the main goal of this research is to improve the existing geomorphological map (GMK). This was achieved by updating the macro-and meso structures and document the microstructures.

Keywords: LiDAR, Central Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley, Baruther Urstromtal, geomorphology, mapping

click here to see: Figure 12: Geomorphological map of the Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley west of Baruth (Brandenburg, Germany).

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BSc Jolien van der Krogt

Name: Jolien van der Krogt

Bachelor Thesis

Supervisor:
Dr. W.M. de Boer and 2nd supervisor: Dr. A.C. Seijmonsbergen

Year: 2015

Investigating geomorphogenesis in the south central Baruth ice-marginal valley west of Baruth with the use of LiDAR data

As a result of the Saalian and Weichselian ice ages and the warm periods between and after these, a dynamic and divers landscape has formed 60 kilometers south of Berlin, Germany. This Central Baruth Ice-Marginal valley has already been mapped geomorphologically by Marcinek (1961), De Boer (1992), Juschus (2001) and others. Pachur and Schulz (1983) made a geomorphological map of an comparable area (Berlin-Zehlendorf) about 45 NNW of Baruth . Since then, technology developed quickly and that enables analyses of landscapes with saving many intensive field trips. This study uses LiDAR data to analyse and categorize landforms formed during, in between and after the two last ice ages (Saalian and Weichselian) (Marcinek, 1961; De Boer, 1994). The data has been used in ArcGIS and edited and processed with LAS-tools. The goal of this research is to present an updated geomorphologic map of the research area. Moreover, a statistical analysis of the occurring landforms is provided. To enable reaching these goals, two fields of interest are distinct. Firstly and quite straightforward, the area of the Central Baruth Ice-Marginal valley. This area is studied trough literature and a field trip. Secondly, the methods to update a geomorphological map are investigated. This technical part of the research also includes a study into the ArcGIS-tool Zonal Statistics.>
Keywords: LiDAR, Central Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley, Baruther Urstromtal, geomorphology, mapping

click here to see: Figure 12: Geomorphological map of the Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley west of Baruth (Brandenburg, Germany).

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Rúna Magnússon

Name: Runa Magnusson

Bachelor Thesis

Supervisor:
Dr. A.C. Seijmonsbergen

Year: 2014

Seeing the Forest for the Trees - Mapping biomass spatial distribution using the AHN2 LiDAR point-clouds

With today's increasing global pressure on natural systems, monitoring them has become of high relevance. LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) is a promising remote sensing technique to monitor forest resources, since it uses laser signals that can penetrate the upper layers of the canopy and measure subcanopy elements. This study aims at exploring possible useful metrics of forest structure calculated from the Dutch AHN2 point-clouds. Moreover, this explorative study will provide some first insights into the methods and uses of LiDAR-based metrics calculation and their possible advantages or disadvantages in the EU Brazil Cloud Connect project, for which researchers of the University of Amsterdam will provide LiDAR-based approaches of monitoring forest responses to climate change in the Brazilian Amazon. It was found that many LiDAR metrics presently used in LiDAR research can be derived from the AHN2 point-clouds, and that they can be indicative of different forest and tree types. However, with more advanced derivatives of LiDAR data such as forest biomass and individual tree dimensions, the need for correct parameterization and combination with other data sources such as field data or hyperspectral imagery increases.

Keywords: Remote sensing, forest monitoring , LiDAR point-clouds, Actueel Hoogtemodel Nederland, AHN, forest structure, biomass

Image upper left: forest plot in the Flevopark in transectview. click here ) Image of forest plots in the Hollandse Hout in 3D view using ArcGIS LAS Dataset toolbox click here ). Colors indicate height.

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Milan Verploegen

Name: Milan Verploegen

Bachelor Thesis

Supervisor:
Dr. W.M. de Boer

Year: 2014

Statistical Analysis of Parabolic, Hummocky and Longitudinal Dunes, using ArcGIS and model builder to create an automated process for analyzing dune statistics with the use of lidar data

This research gives a better understanding of the possibilities of lidar data to analyze geomorphological features in landscapes. A model made with the ArcGIS model builder function is included that automates the process of analyzing an area by providing information on three subjects: the slope direction, the slope steepness and the contour lines of any selected area. This model has been used on several pre-classified parabolic dunes in some dune fields in the Baruth Ice-marginal valley in Brandenburg, Germany. The results provide data of the geomorphological features of these dunes and a model that can be used to analyze dunes using lidar data throughout the world. Although in this research the model is only used on parabolic, hummocky and longitudinal dunes, it can be used on any type of geomorphological feature that contains a height difference. While it will take time to improve the model and fine-tune it for compatibility with other resolutions of lidar data, it is important to invest this time to enhance the knowledge on the geomorphology of the world.

Keywords: GIS, LiDAR, DEM, LiDAR point-clouds, automatic classification, parabolic dunes, hummocky dunes, longitudinal dunes, Brandenburg, Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley

Figure 2: ( click here ) The Model as used in final analysis. Blue ellipsis indicate variables (input files), yellow boxes indicate tools and green bubbles indicate output created by tools.

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Henk Jan Oosterhuis

Name: Henk Jan Oosterhuis

Bachelor Thesis

Supervisor:
Prof. Dr. W. Bouten

Year: 2013

Effects of land cover change on the hydrology of the Victoria Nile catchment

A major way in which humans impact their environment is by converting the land cover to their needs, often by clearing forest or other natural vegetation to make way for agriculture or grazing land. This has important effects on hydrology, often making river discharge higher in the wet season and but lower in the dry season. Land cover has been changing rapidly in the upper reaches of the Nile catchment, while its waters are of vital importance to the people living in its lower reaches. The goal of this study is to quantify land cover change in the Victoria Nile catchment and determine what effects it has had on the Victoria Nile discharge. Vegetation change is detected by calculating NDVI change over 25 years from Landsat multispectral images, and the effects on discharge are modeled by adjusting parameters in the HBV hydrological model adapted for the Victoria Nile catchment. The results show a general increase in vegetation related to increasing rainfall during the study period. Vegetation increase alone would cause a decreased average discharge, but this factor is outweighed by the increased rainfall, with the net effect being an increase in discharge. Lake Victoria has a large buffering effect, removing large wet season peaks and delaying any decreases in discharge. However, small changes in rainfall and evaporation can have large effects on river discharge on a multi-annual scale. This may have important implications, reducing water availability and increasing flood hazard along the Nile River.

Keywords: Land cover change - Victoria Nile catchment – NDVI – Hydrology - Egypt

The map ( click here ) shows areas with NDVI change of more than 0.3 or less than -0.3, which is assumed to be a change in vegetation type. The numbers indicate the net fraction of the subcatchment area that theoretically changed vegetation type.

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Jouke van der Velden

Name: Jouke van der Velden

Bachelor Thesis

Supervisor:
Dr. A.C. Seijmonsbergen

Year: 2013

Semi-automatic delineation and classification of Barrancos in Tenerife Island, based on digital elevation models

This research presents two efficient and accurate methods for delineating and classifying Barrancos in Tenerife Island in a semi-automatic manner, based on digital elevation models. This method is developed using a Geographic Information System (ArcGIS). Barrancos are large fluvial incisions occurring in Mediterranean to (semi-)arid regions on relatively steep slopes. Ephemeral streams may have incised in the volcanic substratum for more than a million years. In Barranco valleys specialized ecosystems occur, which is caused by both its isolating as well and its connecting properties in the landscape. For investigating the role of Barrancos in plant dispersion patterns, a semi-automatic delineation and classification method for Barrancos is useful. Such a method spares time and it is accurate and transparent when compared to manual mapping. Tenerife is formed on a volcanic hotspot and therefore has geologic formations and geomorphologic phenomena typical for volcanic islands. The western and eastern tips of the island are the old remnants of former shield volcanos. These resulting old landscapes are dissected by deep Barrancos. In the islands history, volcano El Teide created diverse geologic formations consisting mainly of basaltic flows intruded by dikes. The initial irregular undulating topography of basalt flows is still reflected in the surface drainage patterns of Barrancos, as the tributary streams mainly show parallel drainage. Many of these properties contribute to the Barranco internal complexity, which is defined as the degree of structure and shape differences along the transect of a Barranco. Internal complexity is measured using slope angle and curvature distributions, solar radiation statistics and the drainage line density. The deliverables of this study are a map showing the locations and classification of Barrancos in Tenerife Island, and two methods for delineating and classifying Barrancos in a semi-automatic manner. The classification method can only be executed with high resolution DEMs. The two methods can be used for further research to plant dispersion patters. The methods are transparent and efficient. It's accuracy can be improved through adjustments by the user to fit topographic properties of the research area.

Keywords: Barranco, automatic classification, GIS, LiDAR, DEM, Tenerife

A general classification workflow is presented in fig. 6.: click here ). In appendix 2 a complete overview of all geoprocessing steps for classifying Barrancos within ArcGIS is given.

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Marije Hoegen

Name: Marije Hoegen

Bachelor Thesis

Supervisor:
Dr. W.M. de Boer

Year: 2013

Paleowind directions determined by long-axis orientation of quartz grains in aeolian sediments in the Central Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley

With help from object-based image analysis (OBIA) thin sections of inland dunes in the Central Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley in Brandenburg (Eastern Germany), developed during the Weichselian Late Glacial, are examined. Long-axis orientation of quartz grains can give an indication of the paleowind directions. For the OBIA method the program eCognition is used. The assumption that there was a dominant NE wind direction due to the influence of the Weichselian ice-sheets gets confirmed with the results from the scanned thin sections. The results from the orientation data from the scanned thin sections show a dominant wind direction from NE to SW. For further research the effect of spectral colour bands and grain size were examined. In eCognition the effects of three different spectral colour bands is discussed and varied to find out if different colour bands have any influence on the classification of the grains. Using a blue or green-blue spectral colour band oversegmentation occurs, individual grains are segmented into multiple polygons. Although there are visible differences there was no significant difference between the spectral colour bands. To determine if grain size has any effect on the orientation, the grains were divided into classes and the mean orientation is compared. Dividing the grains into size classes gives a significant difference between the means. Further research is necessary to give a valid answer to this research question. The statistical test were not reliable and gave incorrect results. Therefore it is of importance that for further research the statistical test will be examined and discussed. This will be necessary to give a correct and validated answer to the research questions.

Keywords: Paleowind direction, thin sections, OBIA, quartz grains, geomorphology, Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley, Baruther Urstromtal, wind rose, Weichselian Late Glacial, Aeolic, Wind-direction, Long-axis, Geomorphology, Brandenburg

Figure 13: Wind roses from the eight samples. Thin section 45 to 52 located at location 1. Thin sections 55 to 58 located at location 2. In figure 13 are shown the eight wind roses derived from the orientation data from the quartz grains. The red line in the roses show the mean orientation. The wind roses show a dominant orientation in NE-SW direction. The lower wind roses have more of a bidirectional shape and show less dominant orientation. The mean orientation is for every wind rose between the 30 and 60 degrees.

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Daan Vial

Name: Daan Vial

Bachelor Thesis

Supervisor:
Dr. W.M. de Boer

Year: 2013

Determining wind directions of paleo-dunes during the Weichselian-Holocene interval in Southeast-Brandenburg

Long-axis orientation of gravel and sand particles has been used for determining the flow direction of fluvial processes. In recent articles there has been a hint at the usability of this theory on Aeolic processes. For this research there will be an analysis of samples taken in South Brandenburg in 1990 on Weichselian sand deposits using Object Based Image Analysis. These samples have not been analysed yet and therefore can provide new insight in the wind direction during the Weichselian/Holocene transition. Furthermore it will give the researcher experience with the needed techniques so the analysing method can be evaluated. It is expected that the evaluation will provide enough insight in the programs and techniques to adapt these insights into a new direction higher accuracy, faster analysis, simpler workflow, or different workflow(s). The dominant orientations found in the dune profile in Klasdorf, South Brandenburg, are North-South and East-West. Neither of the 2 analysed changes in the method (changing the colour bands and changing the length-width ratio limit) provided statistically significant result changes.

Keywords: Aeolic, Wind-direction, OBIA, Long-axis, Geomorphology, Brandenburg, Paleowind direction, thin sections, OBIA, quartz grains, Baruth Ice-Marginal Valley, Baruther Urstromtal, wind rose, Weichselian Late Glacial

Figure 9: Containing the orientation data from the thin sections. True north is at the 0 value. The mean orientation is depicted with the red line, obtained with the use of K=1 so the correct heading was selected. There are 2 dominant orientation directions the N-S/S-N and the W-E/E-W directions.

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Bachelor Projects

image project

Name: Cindy Teeven

Course: Advanced GIS and Remote Sensing Mini-Project

Year: 2010

Semi-automated reconstruction of glacier extent in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru (1989 - 2007) using ArcGIS

Glaciers are known to be very sensitive when climate changes. The variability in temperature and precipitation has a great effect on the position of the glaciers in the past. With the data of images of 1989, 1991, 1999 and 2007 a classification as well a reconstruction of the past position is made. A methodology, based on a semi-automated classification, has been made within ArcMap. A three dimensional view of the final product is created in ArcScene. With various tools in ArcMap, a reconstruction has made of the former position of the glaciers in four different years using a SRTM DEM as background. The final product (figure right) was the result of both manual and automated procedures.

The figure shows the method used in ArcGIS ( click here ) and a reconstruction of the glaciated area during 4 different years visualized on a digital elevation model ( click here )

Keywords: Geodiversity, Biodiversity, Conservation, Vorarlberg
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